Nobel prize and origins of the nobel prize.

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize-

From 1901 till this year, Nobel prizes have been awarded 5.79 times to 911 Laureates and organisations with the youngest winner being 2014 Peace Prize awardee Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan at 17 years.

By winning the Peace Nobel at this tender age along with India’s Kailash Satyarthi, Ms. Yousafzai beat the previous record of Lawrence Bragg, who won the Physics Nobel in 1915 at the age of 25.

The word “Laureate” signifies the laurel wreath awarded to winners of athletic competitions and poetic meets in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology, god Apollo is represented wearing on his head a laurel wreath, -a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the bay laurel. ,

The Origins of the Nobel Prize -

On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace.

In 1968, Sweden’ s central bank Sveriges Riksbank  established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences 1n memory of Nobel.

At the Nobel Award ceremonies on December 10, the Laureates receive three things: a Nobel Diploma, a Nobel Medal and a document confirming the Nobel Prize. amount.

Each Nobel Diploma is a unique work of art, created by foremost Swedish and Norwegian artists and calligraphers.

The Nobel Medals are handmade with careful precision and in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold.

The Nobel Prize amount for 2014 is set at Swedish kronor (SEK) 8.0 million per full Nobel Prize.

Interesting facts-

➤  The average age of all Nobel Laureates in all prize categories between 1901 and 2014 is 59 years.

➤  Most common birthday month of all the Nobel Laureates. is June .

➤ Since 1901, prizes have not been awarded 49 times, most of them during“ World War I (1914-1918) and II (1939 1945).

➤  Leonid Hurwicz has the distinction of being the oldest  Nobel recipient at the age of 90 for Economics in 2007.

➤  Till now, 48 women have won the Nobel while two Laureates declined the prize.

➤  Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 .Nobel Prize in Literature, declined it as he had consistently declined all official honours.

➤  Le Duc Tho, awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord, said he was not in a position to accept the award, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason.

➤  Four Laureates were forced by authorities to decline the Nobel.

➤  Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans Richard Kuhn,  Adolf  Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk,  from accepting the Nobel Prize. They, however, received the Nobel Prize Diploma  and Medal later but not the prize amount.

➤  Boris Pasternak, the 1958 Nobel Laureate in Literature, initially accepted the Prize but was later coerced by authorities of his native country the Soviet Union to decline the award.

➤  Three Peaee Laureates - Germany's Carl von Ossietzky, Myanmar’s pro-democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi and Chinese rights activist Liu Xiaobo - were under arrest at the time of the award.

➤  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was given the Nobel Peace Prize thrice while its founder Henry Dunant Won the first Peace Prize m 1901.

➤  Linus Pauling has the distinction of being the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes -- the 1954 Prize in Chemistry and the 1962 Peace Prize.

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